F-1 OPT (Optional Practical Training) After Your Degree Program
OPT Video Playlist
This playlist has it all -- from how to apply to after you receive the EAD Card. Watch it now!
What is OPT?
OPT (Optional Practical Training) is a benefit and extension of F-1 student status that permits you to remain in the U.S. after you complete your academic program with permission to work in your field of study.
Post-completion OPT extends your F-1 status even though you are no longer an enrolled student, and also extends the F-2 status of any dependents who are with you.
- You must be in F-1 status at the time of application
- You are enrolled in a full-time degree or qualifying certificate program for at least one academic year (two consecutive semesters) in a valid, lawful status
- You have not used all 12 months of OPT at the same degree level
- You have not used OPT at a higher degree level
- Exception for Graduate Students: You have finished all course requirements for your graduate degree except a dissertation, thesis or final project necessary for your degree (also known as ABD)
Employment Under OPT
A job offer is not required in advance of submitting an application which allows you time to job hunt. However, you need to begin appropriate employment within 90 days.
The "clock" counting days begins on the start date of OPT on your EAD card.
- Employment must begin within 90 days from start date on EAD.
- The 90 days of unemployment is an aggregate of all days without work added together (including weekends and between jobs)
- USCIS keeps track of your unemployment days, based on the information you submit in your OPT Reporting.
Be careful! If you accrue more than 90 days of unemployment, or if you forget to report and update your OPT to the ISSO, your F-1 SEVIS record will automatically terminate. A terminated SEVIS record cancels OPT authorization and requires you to leave the United States.
Your maximum amount of Post-Completion OPT is 12 months. If you had OPT previously authorized at the same degree level it will be deducted from the 12 month total. This includes:
- Any OPT authorized during your current program (Pre-Completion OPT)
- Any OPT authorized for another program at the same degree level
Use your previously-issued EAD cards to calculate the number of days to be deducted.
Employment on Post-completion OPT is paid or unpaid work in your field of study for at least 20 hours per week.
Learn about types of employment allowed:
- Paid Employment
- You must work at least 20 hours per week when on post-completion OPT.
- Multiple employers
- You may work for more than one employer, concurrently or one at a time. All employment must be related to your degree program.
- Short-term multiple employers
- Musicians and other performing artists should maintain a list of all "gigs", the dates and duration. If requested by DHS, you must be prepared to provide evidence showing a list of all gigs.
- Employment through an agency or consulting firm
- Also known as employment, temp, or staffing agencies. You are required to average at least 20 hours/week at the location where you are placed.
- Self-employed business owner
- You must be able to prove that you have the proper business license and that the business is related to your degree program. You may need to consult an attorney.
- Independent contractor/ free-lance
- If requested by DHS, be prepared to provide evidence showing the duration of the contract periods and the name and address of the contracting company.
- Unpaid employment
- Unpaid work must be at least 20 hours per week and the work cannot violate any labor laws. Be prepared to provide evidence from the employer that you worked at least 20 hours per week during the period of employment. Learn more on our unpaid employment webpage.
Please note: STEM OPT extension requires paid employment.
We recommend that you maintain evidence — for each job — of the position held, the job title, contact information for the your supervisor or manager, a description of the work, and proof of the duration.
If possible, obtain a signed letter from your hiring official, supervisor, or manager stating how your degree is related to the work performed.
These records and letters are not part of your applications. It is useful to have them available in your personal files in case questions ever arise during OPT or in a future employment-based application.
How to Apply
Your OPT approval may take three months (or maybe more) to be processed by USCIS, so you need to plan ahead.
The earliest you can apply is 90 days before your program end date on your I-20. We encourage you apply as early as possible.
- PhD students only: There is some flexibility in determining your program end date for OPT purposes. You may use the defense date or the end of the term in which you complete requirements. Speak with your academic adviser and an ISSO adviser before choosing an end date.
You get to choose the date you would like OPT authorization to begin, within the 60-day period following your program end date. This is not an easy decision if you don’t have a job offer at the time of application.
You may want to maximize the time you'll have for job-hunting by choosing the latest possible date. The downside, however, is that you cannot begin employment until the start date on your EAD. This may be a problem because if you find a job more quickly than expected and they want you to start earlier, you won't be able to.
Once you choose your OPT start date and submit your application to us, you cannot change it.
Never had OPT authorized at this level of education? You can skip this part because you have nothing to calculate! You are eligible for the full 12 months of Post-Completion OPT.
Do you have EAD Card(s) previously-issued for your current degree level? If yes, you will need to add together all the authorized days to be deducted from the 12-month total.
Don’t worry, whatever dates you submit, an ISSO adviser will review and confirm the remaining OPT time.
Application Process Overview
Obtaining OPT employment authorization is a three-part application. It may take three months (or maybe more) to be processed, so you need to plan ahead.
Part 1. Submit an online application to the ISSO to obtain a new I-20 with the OPT recommendation printed on it. Here's a short video.
Part 2. Pick up your OPT I-20. It is an essential piece of your application to USCIS.
Part 3. Send your complete OPT application with fee to the immigration agency USCIS (Citizenship and Immigration Services).
Pay the OPT Administration Fee
Pay the $140 Administration Fee. You remain in F-1 status under Columbia’s sponsorship with an active SEVIS record during your authorized period of Post-Completion OPT.
Gather your documents and information
You will need these available to submit your application, first to the ISSO for the OPT I-20, and then to USCIS for the EAD card.
- I-765 Application for Employment Authorization
- OPT Request/Academic Adviser Form
- Must be completed by you and your Department
- Most recent I-94 arrival record
- This must show your most recent arrival in F-1 status admitted until "D/S"
- Copies of any previous EAD cards
- Only if you applied for OPT before
- Your requested OPT start and end dates
- Choose your dates carefully. Once you enter them on your OPT application in Compass, they are used to process your request for an OPT I-20 and cannot be changed.
- Form G-1145
- Put this form on the top of your application. This allows USCIS to notify you (via email or text) when they accept your application.
- Completed Form I-765 NOTE: Only this latest version of the form (dated 7/17/2017 on bottom left) will be accepted by USCIS as of December 4, 2017.
- Completed form I-765 signed in blue ink. Send the original, not a photocopy.
- Required $410 fee, payable to the Department of Homeland Security
- This may pay by:
- Form G-1450 Authorization for Credit Card Transaction
- This is an optional form if you are paying the required fee by credit card. Type your information into the fillable form.
- Photocopies of all pages of all I-20s
- A signed and dated copy of your OPT I-20 and all your other I-20s starting from the one marked "initial attendance".
- Do not send originals of any I-20.
- If you do not have all your I-20s and are unable to obtain copies from the appropriate school, you should attach a brief explanation of your F-1 status history.
- Photocopy of your unexpired passport ID page
- Your passport must be valid 6 months into the future.
- Photocopy of your most recent F-1 entry visa
- Canadians are exempt.
- If you changed your status to F-1 in the U.S. and you don't have a visa, include your change of status approval notice.
- Most recent I-94 arrival record
- Access and print your I-94 arrival record in F-1 status here. Note: This is not the “travel history” page.
- Photocopy of both sides of any previously issued EAD cards
- Two U.S. passport style photos
- For photo standards, visit the Department of State website. Other tips:
- Photos should not be more than 30 days old when the application is filed. Do not use a copy of a photograph you used for your passport or visa.
- We recommend that you write your name on the back of each picture in pencil.
- Passport photos can be taken at The UPS Store at 603 West 115th Street and 42 Tiemann Place (equivalent to 124th St.)
Submit your application by logging into Compass with your UNI and password
Please click the appropriate link below:
We will email you
Allow up to 10 business days for us to review and process your application. We will notify you by email when your new I-20 with OPT recommendation is ready to be picked up or shipped.
Pick up your OPT I-20
Review, sign and date it. Use this I-20 when you next travel abroad. The travel signature on page 2 is valid for six months (not 12) when you’re on OPT. Keep all previously issued I-20s-- you may need them for future applications.
Mail your OPT application to USCIS via FedEx or UPS
Send the correct documents!
It sounds obvious, but be sure to include everything on the USCIS Document Checklist listed in Step 2 above.
Send it on time
USCIS must receive your application within 30 days of the date that the OPT I-20 is issued. If not, your application will be denied and your $410 fee will not be refunded.
Be sure your address on the I-765 will be valid for four months after mailing.
Government mail is not forwarded to another address. If you change your address during the processing time, there is a way to update USCIS online using the USCIS Change of Address site but we cannot guarantee its efficacy.
Sign all forms with blue ink
Make sure all your forms are signed! Your application will be rejected if you don’t sign your I-20, check, and I-765 form.
Make a copy of your entire application for your personal records
To avoid mailing problems, send your application by FedEx or UPS to the appropriate USCIS Lockbox facilities.
Most Common Address
If you list your mailing address on the I-765 as being in: Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, U.S. Virgin Islands, or West Virginia, send your application to the Dallas lockbox:
USCIS, Attn: AOS
2501 S. State Hwy. 121 Business Suite 400
Lewisville, TX 75067
Less Common Address
If you list your mailing address on the I-765 as being in: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Guam, or the Northern Mariana Islands, send your application to the Phoenix lockbox:
USCIS, Attn: AOS
1820 E. Skyharbor Circle S, Suite 100
Phoenix, AZ 85034
Receive Employment Authorization Document (EAD) Card
Normally you will receive the two documents below from USCIS before the EAD arrives. Contact us if you receive any other notice, such as a Request for Evidence (RFE), from USCIS.
- Receipt notice
- Approval notice
You can start working once you have your EAD card in hand and the start date has arrived. Review the card for accuracy.
The OPT start date on your EAD card will be the date you requested or the date the EAD is processed, whichever is later.
After You Receive the EAD Card
If you do not already have an SSN, and didn't apply for one when you completed the I-765 OPT application, you are now eligible to apply on or after the start date on your EAD card.
Do not apply again if you have already done so.
In general, post-completion OPT cannot be extended, except in the following two situations:
- STEM OPT Extension: If you graduated from a degree program in a government-designated STEM field, you may be eligible for an extension for an additional 24 months of OPT. Read more about the STEM OPT extension.
- Cap-Gap Extension: If your employer files a change of status H-1B petition while you are on authorized OPT and it is selected by USCIS for processing, your OPT may be automatically extended during the period of time between the expiration of your OPT and the October 1st change of status to H-1B. Read more about the “Cap Gap” extension.
Learn more! Watch our Extending Your OPT video for more information.
While you are on OPT, you remain in F-1 status. If you have plans to travel abroad during this period, you need to know in advance what to have with you to return to the U.S. in F-1 status, so you don't jeopardize your OPT authorization.
Students are allowed to study part-time while under OPT. Full-time study is not permitted.
If you decide to begin a new full-time program at:
- Columbia, you will need to be in contact with the ISSO to obtain a new I-20 for the new program. Follow the instructions at Beginning a New Program.
- at another U.S. school, you will need to be in contact with the ISSO to transfer your SEVIS record to the new school to facilitate obtaining a new I-20 from them. Follow our "Transfer Out" instructions.
As soon as you transfer to the new program, the rest of your OPT is forfeited and you must stop working.
When your EAD expires, you have a 60 day grace period in which:
- to remain in the U.S. to prepare for departure or travel domestically
- transfer to another school, or
- change your visa status.
You cannot work during the grace period, or leave and return to the U.S. in F-1 status. On the 61st day after the EAD expires, SEVIS automatically completes your F-1 SEVIS record.
If you decide to discontinue your OPT before the EAD expires, you do not have a grace period and must report your departure through OPT Reporting. This will complete your F-1 SEVIS record.