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What is OPT?
OPT (Optional Practical Training) is a benefit and extension of F-1 student status that permits you to remain in the U.S. after you complete your academic program with permission to work in your field of study.
Post-Completion OPT extends your F-1 status although you are no longer an enrolled student, and also extends the F-2 status of any dependents who are with you.
Learn more! Watch our short video, "What is OPT?"
Before You Apply
F-1 regulations require you to be in the U.S. in F-1 status at the time you apply for OPT. Your most recent I-94 arrival record is among the required documentation.
Employment on Post-completion OPT is paid or unpaid work in your field of study for at least 20 hours per week.
Learn about types of employment allowed:
A job offer is not required in advance of submitting an application which allows you more time to job hunt. However, you need to begin OPT employment within 90 days of the start date on your EAD.
The "clock" to count unemployment days begins on the start date of OPT on your EAD card
Be careful! If you accrue more than 90 days of unemployment, or if you forget to report and update your OPT to the ISSO, your F-1 SEVIS record may automatically terminate. A terminated SEVIS record cancels OPT authorization and requires you to leave the United States.
Your maximum amount of Post-Completion OPT is 12 months. If you had OPT previously authorized at the same degree level it will be deducted from the 12 month total. This includes:
Use your previously-issued EAD cards to calculate the number of days to be deducted.
We recommend that you maintain evidence — for each job — of the position held, the job title, contact information for the your supervisor or manager, a description of the work, and proof of the duration.
If possible, obtain a signed letter from your hiring official, supervisor, or manager stating how your degree is related to the work performed.
These records and letters are not part of your applications. It is useful to have them available in your personal files in case questions ever arise during OPT or in a future employment-based application.
Learn more! Watch our short video "5 Fun Facts About OPT (Optional Practical Training)"
Determine Your OPT Timeline
Your OPT approval may take more than three months to be processed by USCIS, so you need to plan ahead. Hopefully, you will receive an approval earlier than this.
Apply as early as possible
The earliest you can submit your application to the ISSO for your OPT I-20 is 90 days before your program end date.
Use our OPT Calculator to determine:
- When to apply;
- How much OPT time you have left if you have used OPT at this educational level:
- You will need to have your EAD Card(s) available to add together all the days to be deducted from the 365-day total;
OPT start and end dates
As a doctoral student, you have some flexibility in determining your program end date for OPT purposes. You may use the defense date or the end of the term in which you complete requirements.
Note that after your program end date, you are no longer eligible to engage in on-campus employment as a student or receive funding from your department. OPT employment can begin only after you have received your EAD card, and are within the dates printed on your EAD card.
Consult with both an ISSO adviser and your academic adviser before finalizing your "custom end date" in the "OPT Calculator".
Please ensure you are following GSAS registration guidelines regarding registration in the term you distribute.
Choose Your OPT Start Date
Choose your OPT dates wisely
You get to choose the date you would like OPT authorization to begin, within the 60-day period following your program end date. This is not an easy decision if you don’t have a job offer at the time of application.
The latest date is not always best
You may want to maximize the time you'll have for job-hunting by choosing the latest possible date. The downside, however, is that you cannot begin employment until the start date on your EAD.
OPT dates cannot be changed
Once you choose your OPT start date and submit your application to us, you cannot change it.
Click the appropriate link below to log in to Compass:
We Will Contact You
We will send a message to your Columbia email address when your digital OPT I-20 has been processed, which you will need for your USCIS application. Please note that 10 business days is the maximum processing time, not the average, and we will process your request as quickly as possible.
Receive Your OPT I-20
- Review page 2 to verify the OPT dates you requested, then print and sign on page 1.
- You must submit your application within 30 days after the date this OPT I-20 was issued or it will be denied.
- Always use your most recent I-20 when you travel. Be aware that the travel signature on page 2 is valid for six months (not 12) when you’re on OPT.
- Keep all previously issued I-20s. You may need them for future applications.
Submit your OPT I-765 application online through your USCIS account.
After you have your OPT I-20, the online application is easy to use. Watch this short video on the many advantages of filing online as compared to mailing a paper application. ISSO highly recommends that you file online, but if you prefer to send a paper application, here is the checklist of documents and USCIS mailing address.
The ISSO provides the following tips regarding the OPT application, however, please keep in mind that you are responsible for the accuracy of your application to USCIS and following their step-by-step instructions.
You will find that the online application is user-friendly, but come back to check if you're not sure about any of these questions.
“What is your eligibility category?”
- Choose ONLY “(c)(3)(B) Student Post-Completion OPT”.
“What is your reason for applying?”
- Choose the option “Initial permission for employment”.
“U.S. Mailing Address”
- Be sure your U.S. mailing address on the I-765 will be valid for at least four - five months. If you do not have an address that will be valid for four - five months, you can enter the name and U.S. address of a friend or family member under “In Care Of Name (if any).”
“Previously Authorized CPT or OPT”
- For CPT: Upload copy of your CPT I-20(s).
- For OPT: Upload copy of your EAD card(s).
- If you are missing I-20(s) or EAD card(s), upload a letter (template here).
“I-94 Arrival and Departure Record”
- Copy of your most recent I-94 arrival record (not your travel history). Make sure the record indicates “Class of Admission: F1" and “Admit Until Date: D/S,” which stands for duration of status.
“Status at last arrival”
- Scroll down to “F1 - F1 - Student, Academic Or Language Program.”
“What is your A-Number?”
- This number is listed on your most recent EAD card, under “USCIS #.” If you do not have one or lost it then click the box “I do not have or know my A-Number”.
“What is your USCIS Account Number?”
- If this is your first online application to USCIS, you will not have a USCIS Account Number yet. Click the box “I do not have or know my USCIS Online Account Number”.
- Pay the required application fee. Remember that once you pay the fee, there can be no changes to your application as it will be considered submitted.
“Review and Submit”
- Check that that you are within the 30-day window after the date your Post-Completion OPT I-20 was issued. Do not submit if it is outside this timeframe, and contact the ISSO for assistance.
- Verify that all information is correct and digitally sign and submit your application.
After You Submit Your OPT Application
Normally, you will receive 2 updates from USCIS before the EAD. You do not need to contact us when you receive these two updates. If you receive other communication that requires follow up, contact the ISSO for assistance.
1. I-797 Receipt Notice with a case number. You will receive a case number immediately after submitting the online application.Check for accuracy in case there’s an error in your name or other information that needs to be corrected.
2. I-797 Approval Notice
* USCIS is extending flexibilities to OPT applicants whose applications were received between October 1, 2020, through October 31, 2021, and experienced excessive delays in in processing. See our OPT FAQs.
USCIS Processing Time and EAD Delivery FAQs
The USCIS processing time of OPT applications can vary. Check USCIS Case Processing Times to find out how long I-765 applications are currently taking.
If your case has been pending outside USCIS's listed case processing time for I-765 applications, submit an inquiry to USCIS via your online account.
Unfortunately, it is not possible to know exactly when your OPT application will be approved, and you need the EAD in hand to begin employment. You may need to be flexible in regard to your OPT start date.
Any activity that could be considered OPT employment cannot begin until you have your EAD card and are within the approved dates on the EAD card. You cannot work, paid or unpaid, for an employer until your EAD card arrives. Still job-hunting? Review the types of employment that are allowed for OPT.
The 60-day grace period no longer applies once you have applied for OPT before the deadline. You are able to stay in the US for as long as it takes USCIS to adjudicate your request.
Generally, USCIS will adjust the start date on your EAD card to the date that USCIS approved your OPT.
Regardless of when you are approved, F-1 regulations limit the extension of your OPT end date to 14 months after your program end date.
Try one of these two methods:
- Use USPS’ Missing Mail and Lost Package Form to locate your envelope.
- Visit your local US Post Office and ask them for detailed scanning information about where and when your package was scanned.
If USPS lost the EAD, attach a letter from the US Postal Service on official letterhead, stating that the USPS is responsible for the lost EAD, including the contact person from the US Post Office to send an email to the ISSO.
After You Receive Your EAD
You should have already made a copy of your application materials before submitting your application to USCIS. Now add a copy of the EAD. You may need them for future immigration or visa applications.
If you do not already have an SSN, and didn't apply for one when you completed the I-765 OPT application, you are now eligible to apply on or after the start date on your EAD card.
Do not apply again if you have already done so.
In general, post-completion OPT cannot be extended, except in the following two situations:
- STEM OPT Extension: If you graduated from a degree program in a government-designated STEM field, you may be eligible for an extension for an additional 24 months of OPT. Read more about the STEM OPT extension.
- Cap-Gap Extension: If your employer files a change of status H-1B petition while you are on authorized OPT and it is selected by USCIS for processing, your OPT may be automatically extended during the period of time between the expiration of your OPT and the October 1st change of status to H-1B. Read more about the “Cap Gap” extension.
Learn more! Watch our Extending Your OPT video for more information.
While you are on OPT, you remain in F-1 status. If you have plans to travel abroad during this period, you need to know in advance which F-1 documents you need to have with you to return to the U.S. so you won't jeopardize your OPT authorization.
Do not come back to the U.S. in any status other than F-1! Visit our Travel During F-1 OPT page for complete information. Our Travel Abroad on OPT video gives a great overview.
During OPT, you are not permitted to study toward a degree program. Study is limited to part-time non-degree classes.
If you decide to begin a new full-time program at:
When your EAD expires, you have a 60 day grace period in which:
You cannot work during the grace period, or leave and return to the U.S. in F-1 status. On the 61st day after the EAD expires, SEVIS automatically completes your F-1 SEVIS record.
If you decide to discontinue your OPT before the EAD expires, you do not have a grace period and must report your departure through OPT Reporting. This will complete your F-1 SEVIS record.